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Additional resources for Weather Modification by Cloud Seeding
16) where xI denotes the (liquid) cloud water concentration. Terminal Speeds of Water Drops d. 16) require that uT be known as a function of Experimental data on uT are quite abundant, but the theoretical development is complex. , Pruppacher and Klett (1978)l. It is customary to express uTas a function of the equivalent diameter, that is, the diameter of a sphere containing the same volume of water as the drop in question. The terminal speed of a drop is strongly dependent on the air density, and hence upon pressure, temperature, and relative humidity.
Although El is very close to zero in such cases, the vast number of drop-droplet pairs in even a few cubic meters of cloud insures that some collisions will occur in a typical cloud. 50 111. 0 dZ/dl Fig. 13. Collision efficiency El as a function of ratio of drop diameter d2 to droplet diameter dl, as deduced from computer simulations. Curves are labeled by drop diameter in micrometers. [After J. D. Klett and M. H. A m o s . Sci. ] Values of El as calculated by Klett and Davis are presented in Fig.
Mordy (1959). 2 FORMATION OF WATER CLOUDS 37 survive the selection process d o not differ by as large a factor as the diameters of the nuclei around which they form. Cloud droplet populations have narrow size distributions; in some cases all of the droplets in newly formed cloud are in the 10-20 p m size range, and further condensational growth tends to narrow the differences further. , Howell (1949); Mordy (1959)l. Rapid cooling produces larger temporary supersaturations and activates more CCN than does slow cooling.