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Pilot's manual/flight working directions for the P-39Q-1 Airacobra

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Decreasing or constant belowground competition would be expected in variably sized multiple crops where one species clearly dominates the canopy and subcanopy species are shade tolerant. A clear example of this latter situation is the Inga spp. tree shaded coffee plantation. 18 Productivity High Interaction between above- and below-ground interference can change in a strongly nonlinear fashion along a productivity gradient. Consider the following hypothetical examples, (a) As water becomes more available, plant density, plant cover, and vertical stratification tend to increase, both in natural plant communities and in agroforestry systems.

In this view, the world is populated by organisms mutually adapted and beneficial by virtue of their direct and indirect interactions (Fath and Patten, 1998). Such synergistic networks might well have developed and could actually be operating in many biodiverse agroecosystems. A neighboring plant may benefit others directly by improving microclimate, providing physical support, and ameliorating soil conditions and plant nutrition. Indirect benefits may result from reducing the impact of competitors, distracting or deterring predators and parasites, encouraging beneficial rhizosphere components, and attracting pollinators or dispersal agents.

18. For canopy-dominant species and subcanopy shade-tolerant species, one can expect below-ground competition either to decrease or to remain constant along the productivity gradient, with no significant increase in above-ground competition. In tropical agroecosystems, decreasing below-ground competition should hold for a tall stature monocrop moderately infested with weeds. Decreasing or constant belowground competition would be expected in variably sized multiple crops where one species clearly dominates the canopy and subcanopy species are shade tolerant.

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