By Nigel Thomas, Dusan Babac, Darko Pavlovic
Contemporary heritage should still remind us that it used to be occasions within the Balkans which sparked off the good conflict, with the assassination of the Austrian inheritor Prince Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, and the resultant invasion of Serbia by way of Austro-Hungarian armies on 2 August 1914. however, the next four-year conflict in that theatre is often overshadowed through the simultaneous campaigns at the Western entrance. For the 1st time this publication deals a concise account of those complicated campaigns, the organization, orders of conflict, and the uniforms and insignia of the armies concerned: Austro-Hungarian, German, Ottoman, Serbian, Montenegrin, Albanian, British, French, Italian, Russian, Bulgarian, Greek and Rumanian.
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Extra info for Armies In The Balkans 1914-18
The campus, with only a single complete building before the United States entered the war, contained 153 buildings when the war ended. Similarly, by the end of the war approximately twelve hundred scientists were stationed there. The Army Corps of Engineers also trained at AU, initially calling their base Camp American University, and later, Camp Leach, whereas the facilities of the Bureau of Mines became known as the American University Experimental Station (AUES). The total station, including AU and surrounding land tracts, consisted of 509 acres.
The ¤eld experiments were conducted on leased farmlands surrounding the campus. Soldiers tied the animals to stakes, exposed them to chemical bombs, and watched them struggle and usually die. The carcasses were then shaved and dissected to determine exactly how the gases affected the animals’ physiology. The lewisite animal tests conducted by the Pharmacological Section revealed that the ¤rst symptoms were blinking and tearing of the eyes, followed by nasal secretion, retching, and vomiting. These symptoms resulted from severe irritation and swelling of the mucous lining of the nose, throat, and respiratory tract.
3 Some popular articles of the time also gave Nieuwland credit for its discovery. For example, the January 17, 1922 issue of the South Bend (Indiana) Tribune reported, “Discovery of ‘Lewisite,’ the most deadly poisonous gas the world has ever known, is credited today to the Rev. Julius A. ”5 Lewis, in a December 11, 1928, letter, also to General Fries, criticized an article by Major Cyrus B. Wood in the March 1928 issue of Military Surgeon that gave the impression that Nieuwland had discovered lewisite.