By Katherine Munn, Barry Smith
Ontology is the philosophical self-discipline that goals to appreciate how issues on this planet are divided into different types and the way those different types are comparable. this is often precisely what info scientists objective for in growing dependent, automatic representations, known as ontologies, for handling details in fields such as technology, executive, undefined, and healthcare. at the moment, those platforms are designed in quite a few alternative ways, so they can't proportion info with each other. This quantity indicates, in a non-technical approach and utilizing examples from drugs and biology, how the rigorous software of theories and insights from philosophical ontology can increase the ontologies upon which info administration relies.
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Additional info for Applied Ontology
Thus, whether a discipline is formal or not depends on the entities to which its claims refer, and on the way in which it refers to them. However, there are two quite different ways in which a judgment may be said to explicitly mention or refer to particular objects. 5 Particular objects are concrete, discrete, and they exist only once. Particular judgments refer to such things by using proper names or demonstrative expressions like ‘Marlene’, ‘this’, or ‘over there’. Further, their truth depends on the state of exactly those particular things to which they refer.
Edmund Husserl, who introduced this term into philosophy, describes it as the ‘eidetic science of the object as such’ (Husserl, Husserliana, 3/1, 26-27). Eidetic derives from the Greek eidos, which means form. Therefore, we will approach Husserl’s formula by 44 means of a brief discussion of the general distinction between matter and form. This will lead to a discussion of experience and its objects, thus enabling us to understand the second part of Husserl’s description of the object as such. Husserl deliberately uses the term ‘eidetic’ instead of ‘formal’, because he wants to avoid misleading connotations (Husserl, Husserliana, 3/1, 9).
Matter and Form According to Aristotle General is the opposite of regional, and formal is the opposite of material. Formal ontology, rather than being non-regional, is non-material. It may study a specific kind of thing, but that does not mean that it studies particular and concrete instances of these kinds. What does this mean? In order to distinguish formal from material ontology, we will now consider the distinction between matter and form. There are at least two different traditional conceptions of the difference between matter and form, which are attributable to Aristotle and Immanuel Kant respectively.