Download An Introduction to the History of Psychology (7th Edition) by B. R. Hergenhahn, Tracy Henley PDF

By B. R. Hergenhahn, Tracy Henley

Desires questioned early guy, Greek philosophers spun tricky theories to provide an explanation for human reminiscence and belief, Descartes postulated that the mind was once packed with "animal spirits," and psychology was once formally deemed a "science" within the nineteenth century. during this 7th version of AN advent TO THE heritage OF PSYCHOLOGY, authors Hergenhahn and Henley exhibit that almost all of the troubles of latest psychologists are manifestations of topics which were a part of psychology for hundreds--or even thousands--of years. The book's a number of photos and pedagogical units, in addition to its biographical fabric on key figures in psychology, interact readers and facilitate their knowing of every chapter.

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However, knowing all causes of an event is not necessary; the determinist simply assumes that they exist and that as more causes are known, predictions become more accurate. For example, almost everyone would agree that the weather is a function of a finite number of variables such as sunspots, high-altitude jet streams, and barometric pressure; yet weather forecasts are always probabilistic because many of these variables change constantly, and others are simply unknown. The assumption underlying weather prediction, however, is determinism.

They asked, of course, what I wanted them to observe. … Observation is always selective. It needs a chosen object, a definite task, an interest, a point of view, a problem. (p. 61) So for Popper, scientific activity starts with a problem, and the problem determines what observations scientists will make. The next step is to propose solutions to the problem (conjectures) and then attempt to find fault with the proposed solutions (refutations). Popper saw scientific method as involving three stages: problems, theories (proposed solutions), and criticism.

Nor do scientists normally aim to invent new theories, and they are often intolerant of those invented by others. Instead, normalscientific research is directed to the articulation of those phenomena and theories that the paradigm already supplies. (Kuhn, 1996, p. 24) A paradigm, then, determines what constitutes a research problem and how the solution to that problem is sought. In other words, a paradigm guides all of the researcher’s activities, both theoretical and methodological. More important, however, is that researchers become emotionally involved in their paradigm—they define their careers by the work they do within the paradigm.

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