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By Donald L. Kreider, Robert G. Kuller, Donald R. Ostberg, Fred W. Perkins, Lynn H. LOoomis

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For an estimated overall time resolution of At = 1 ns and a nominal electron energy of 10 eV, the TOF analysis (Eq. 40) is associated with an energy resolution Instrumentation 49 of Ae = 370 me V. This is poor compared to any electrostatic instrument. From Eq. 41 The energy resolution is thus considerably improved at low energies. For the same given time resolution and a nominal energy of 1 eV, we have Ae = 12 meV! At this point we again mention the "zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy" (ZEKE-PE S) which uses a TO F analysis of threshold electrons formed in laser multiphoton ionization [78-80].

The noble gas continuum lamp operates at substantially higher pressures (100 mb) which requires extensive differential pumping to reduce the pressure in the monochromator and the main chamber. While the H2 lamp works continuously, the noble gas lamp needs repetitively high power pulses in order to maintain the discharge. It is believed that transitions from weakly bound excited noble gas molecules to the repulsive potential energy curve of the ground state are responsible for these continua [18].

Concave grating and Rowland circle: the spectrum of an illuminated point (S) lying on the Rowland circle will be focused on the circle. The simplest scanning mechanism of a monochromator is the rotation ofthe grating over a vertical axis through the center of the grating which is known as SeyaNamioka mounting. When the angular separation between entrance and exit beam is 70 0 a simple rotation of the concave grating varies the wavelength and maintains the image in approximate focus [27]. More complicated motions involving rotation as well as translation of the grating on scanning the wavelength are used in high resolution monochromators.

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