Download Africa: A Biography of the Continent by John Reader PDF

By John Reader

Drawing on a long time of African event, John Reader has written a booklet of startling grandeur and scope that recreates the good landscape of African background, from the primeval cataclysms that shaped the continent to the political upheavals dealing with a lot of the continent at the present time. Reader tells the extreme tale of humankind's version to the ferocious stumbling blocks of woodland, river and desolate tract, and to the specter of debilitating parasites, micro organism and viruses unequalled in different places on the earth. He additionally indicates how the world's richest collection of animals and crops has helped - or hindered - human growth in Africa.

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Additional resources for Africa: A Biography of the Continent

Example text

The sands were brought from the Nile Delta by the counter-clockwise sea currents, deposited along the shore and driven inland by the winds. 9 The transgressions were caused by the melting of the glaciers and, therefore, coincided with warm interglacial periods while the regressions occurred in glacial periods when water froze and was captured by the glaciers. The 9 A. D. thesis (Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Hebrew with summary in English, 1961). Ibid. "Geology of the Central Coastal Plain ofIsrael" lIES 17 (1968) 16-29.

R. Kandel, Water from Heaven, Columbia University Press, New York (2003) 101-123. 16 Constructing the Jigsaw Puule of Palaeo-Climates near Iceland and the high pressure near the Azores. 4 It is supported by the Gulf Stream carrying warm and salty water from the Caribbean Sea northeast along the eastern shores of northern America and then across the northern Atlantic. Before reaching the coasts of Europe, the stream splits into two. A southern current passes the coasts of Portugal, the Azores and northern Africa, and then rejoins the northern Brazil Current and heads back to the Caribbean Sea.

Flohn, "African Environmental and Climatic Changes and the General Circulation in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene" Climatic Change 2, no. 4 (1980) 313-348. Time Series of Proxy-Data to Decipher Climates of the Past 29 that when the sea level rose, the water entered the caves and left deposits along the ancient high shorelines. These deposits contained driftwood and could be dated by 14c. When the sea retreated, rivulets began draining the water, which had entered through the caves' chimneys and cut deep canyons in the salt.

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