By Peter Gatrell
"... a sign contribution to a turning out to be literature on a phenomenon that has turn into tragically pervasive within the twentieth century.... This hugely unique account combines exemplary empirical learn with the really appropriate program of different ways to discover the far-reaching ramifications of 'a entire empire walking.'" -- Vucinich Prize citation"An very important contribution not just to fashionable Russian background but in addition to an ongoing repositioning of Russia in broader ecu and international old processes.... elegantly written... hugely innovative." -- Europe-Asia experiences Drawing on formerly unused archival fabric in Russia, Latvia, and Armenia and on insights from social and significant conception, Peter Gatrell considers the origins of displacement and its political implications and offers an in depth research of humanitarian tasks and the relationships among refugees and the groups during which they settled.
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Extra resources for A Whole Empire Walking: Refugees in Russia during World War I (Indiana-Michigan Series in Russian and East European Studies)
In April, General Mackensen launched a ¤erce offensive against the Russian Third Army, stationed between Cracow and Gorlice. 38 Each month gave rise to fresh military catastrophes. 39 The fortresses of Ivangorod (Deblin; located in Kozenitskii uezd, Radom province) and Brest-Litovsk succumbed as well. 40 Farther north, the German army consolidated the gains made during the previous year’s offensive. 41 In Lithuania, the town of Kaunas—with 88,000 inhabitants, half of them Jewish—fell on 4 August.
Lednicki believed this was their “patriotic duty”; in contrast to Neidgardt, however, his sense of national obligation re®ected a belief that the Polish “homeland” deserved better of Russia. 113 The opposite view was articulated by G. G. Zamyslovskii, who maintained that those who stayed behind were likely to be conscripted by the enemy to dig trenches, repair railway track, and supply foodstuffs. Whether willingly or not, these civilians would certainly be helping the German and Austrian war effort.
136 One optimist suggested that farmers could buy replacements in Russia at a reasonable price. 138 Obviously, the heaviest farm equipment had to be left behind, along with the basic immovable element of the peasant household—the stove. But smaller items—work tools, clothing and bedding, utensils, perhaps spinning wheels and small looms—might be salvaged. If we assume, somewhat heroically, that the peasant economy of Starobel’sk uezd in Khar’kov province was typical of the farms abandoned by the peasantry of the western borderlands, then refugees were on average probably deprived of around two-¤fths of their assets.